Dr. Andreas Heusler

MPI-Kernphysik, Heidelberg

retired since 01-02-03

e-mail: A.Heusler@mpi-hd.mpg.de


In the past I was studying nuclear structure with the techniques of inelastic proton scattering via isobaric analog resonances, see [1969WU01], [1969HE13], [1970HE05], [1970MU09], [1977HE11] for the study of N=82 nuclei and neighbours and a study of the Gross Structure in Excitation Functions for 207Pb(p,p') in the Region of Overlapping Isobaric Analogue Resonances

Structure of states in the doubly magic nucleus 208Pb

The study of the doubly magic nucleus 208Pb was the greatest challenge. A first trial was done during my stage at Saclay (SPNBE), Ann. Phys. 75 (1973) 381-404. An update performed in 1982 is found here or here. An update performed in 2013 is found here, finally in Appendix A (Table 4) of EPJ A 53:215 (2017).

After my retirement I restarted these studies at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium of LMU and TU M"unchen. Only now (after more than thirty years of continuous development) the techniques are sufficiently well developed to perform experiments with the magnetic spectrograph which resolve most levels in 208Pb, see the annual reports 2003 and 2004 and 2006. and 2009-2013.


A paper about The i11/2 f5/2 and i11/2 p3/2 neutron particle-hole multiplets in 208Pb

has been published in Phys. Rev. C74, 034303 (2006). The preliminary version did not mention the new state at Ex=5239 keV.

The unique case of a two-level mixing is described in Mixing strength in the two lowest 0- states in 208Pb

in Phys. Rev. C75, 024312 (2007).

The Mass dependence of the surface delta-interaction strength for two-particle (two-hole) multiplets

has been published in The European Physical Journal A - Hadrons and Nuclei, vol. 38 (2008), p. 6-16

The Observation of five high spin members of the g9/2 f7/2 multiplet in 208Pb

has been published in European Physical Journal A - Hadrons and Nuclei, vol. 44 (2010), p. 233-238

Positive parity states in 208Pb excited by the proton decay of the isobaric analog intruder resonance j15/2 in 209Bi

has been published in Phys. Rev. C82:014316 (2010).

The Observation of the 2- state in 208Pb with a major s1/2 p3/2 structure and structure of ten more 2- states

has been published in the European Physical Journal A - Hadrons and Nuclei, vol. 46 (2010), p. 17-26

The Proton decay of the d5/2 isobaric analog resonance in 209Bi into particle hole states in in 208Pb

has been published in the European Physical Journal A - Hadrons and Nuclei, vol. 47:22 (2011) p. 1-10 where Fig. 1 is shown with the main lettering in Erratum to: Proton decay of the d5/2 isobaric analog resonance in 209Bi into particle hole states in in 208Pb

Structure of states in 208Pb with major components of the neutron particle-hole configuration n(d5/2 p3/2)

has been published in J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 38 (2011) 105102 (19pp)

Excitation Energies of Particle-Hole States in 208Pb and the Surface Delta Interaction

has been published in Yad. Fiz. (2013), 76(07):860 , see also Phys. of Atomic Nuclei 76(7)1.

The Proton decay of the d5/2 isobaric analog resonance in 209Bi into particle hole states in in 208Pb

has been published in the European Physical Journal A - Hadrons and Nuclei, vol. 47:22 (2011) p. 1-10 where Fig. 1 is shown with the main lettering in Erratum to: Proton decay of the d5/2 isobaric analog resonance in 209Bi into particle hole states in in 208Pb

The study Excitation Energies of Particle-Hole States in 208Pb and the Surface Delta Interaction

has been published in the Yadernaya Fizika 76(7) 807-827 (2013).

The Single-particle widths in 208Bi and 209Bi determined from the inelastic proton scattering by 207Pb and 208Pb

has been published in the European Physical Journal A - Hadrons and Nuclei, vol. 50:92 (2014) p. 1-32

Determining the Strength of Undetectable Particle-Hole Configurations by Complete Spectroscopy of Negative Parity States in 208Pb

has been published in Phys. Rev. C89:024322 (2014).

Identification of the 0+ proton pairing vibration state in the doubly magic nucleus 208Pb by particle spectroscopy

has been published in Phys. Rev. C91:044325 (2015).

Proton pairing vibration states around the doubly magic nucleus 208Pb

has been published in Phys. Rev. C92:011302(R) (2015).

Complete identification of states in 208Pb below E x=6.2 MeV

has been published in Phys. Rev. C93:054321 (2016).

Received 4 December 2015 Published 23 May 2016

Find under Highlights and Nuclear Structure

Editors' Suggestion

The 208Pb nucleus, with "magic numbers" of 82 protons and 126 neutrons, has been a touchstone for the study of nucleon motion in the nucleus for 65 years. This exhaustive study analyses high-resolution particle reaction data obtained by this group (and others) over more than a decade, using a variety of reactions, to determine the first essentially complete level scheme of 208Pb up to about 6 MeV of excitation energy. Comparison with schematic shell model calculations tests the completeness of that model and provides estimates of missing ingredients.


Chaos and regularity in the doubly magic nucleus 208Pb

has been published in Phys. Rev. Lett. 118:012501 (2017).

Examination of experimental evidence of chaos in the bound states of 208Pb

has been published in Phys. Rev. C95:014317 (2017).

Identification of rotating and vibrating tetrahedrons in the heavy nucleus 208Pb

has been published in EPJ A 53:215 (2017).

Description of one-particle one-hole configurations coupled to the 3- yrast state in the doubly magic nucleus 208Pb

has been published in Phys. Rev. C99:034323 (2019).

Talks


On the occasion of the 231st ACS National Meeting at Atlanta (GA) a symposium on Contemporary Frontiers in Nuclear Structure was held in honor of Steven W. Yates who was given the 2006 Seaborg Award for Nuclear Chemistry sponsored by the ACS Division of Nuclear Chemistry & Technology, My talk on the

Identification of the i11/2 f5/2 and i11/2 p3/2 neutron particle-hole multiplets in 208Pb

can be viewed from the pdf-file and an accompagning text-file.
Auf der Tagung der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft in Giessen 2007 (12.-16. M"arz 2007) wurde im Vortrag HK41.5 die

Anregung von Zust"anden in 208Pb mit positiver Parit"at beim Protonzerfall der (intruder) j15/2 IAR in 209Bi

dargestellt, siehe pdf-File und erkl"arender Text-File
On the 9th International Spring Seminar on Nuclear Physics, Vico Equense, May 20-24, 2007, with the proceedings on Changing Facets of Nuclear Structure I gave a talk on

Nuclear Structure Information from 208Pb(p, p') via Isobaric Analog Resonances in 209Bi

see abstract and PDF-file pdf-File with accompagning text-file.
On the International Nuclear Physics Conference, Tokyo, Japan, June 3-8, 2007, in the session Nuclear Structure (part 1) I gave a talk on

Positive Parity States in 208Pb Observed in the Proton Decay of the j15/2 (intruder) Isobaric Analog Resonance in 209Bi

see abstract and pdf-file
Auf der Tagung der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft in Darmstadt 2008 (10.-14. M"arz 2008) wurde im Vortrag HK41.6 die

Massenabh"angigkeit der Nukleon-Wechselwirkung in g.s. Multipletts

(urspr"unglicher Titel: Zust"ande mit reiner Konfiguration in 208Pb) dargestellt, siehe pdf-File und erkl"arender Text-File
Auf dem XIII. International Symposium on Capture Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy and Related Topics (25. - 29. August 2008 in Koeln) wurde als Beitrag zur Poster Sitzung

Multiplet splitting of particle-hole states in 208Pb

ein Poster vorgestellt.
Auf der Tagung der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft in Bonn 2010 (15.-19. M"arz 2010) wurde im Vortrag HK63.3 "uber die

Anregung von Zust"anden positiver Parit"at in 208Pb beim Proton-Zerfall der isobarisch-analogen j15/2 Resonanz in 209Bi

berichtet, siehe pdf-File und erkl"arender Text-File
On the 10th International Spring Seminar on Nuclear Physics, Vietri, May 21-25, 2010, I gave a talk on

High resolution particle spectroscopy in 208Pb with the Q3D magnetic spectrograph of the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium at M"unchen

see abstract and PDF-file pdf-File with accompagning text-file. In the conference proceedings the report is published.
During the International Nuclear Physics Conference 2010 (INPC2010), at Vancouver (Canada), July 4-9, 2010, on Thursday 8-July-2010 in the parallel session NS11, I gave a talk on

High resolution particle spectroscopy in 208Pb,

see slides and minutes . It was published in J. Phys. G: Conference Series 312 092030(2011)
Auf der Tagung der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft in M"unster 2011 (21.-25. M"arz 2011) wurde im Vortrag HK50.6 "uber die

Ann"aherung an vollst"andige Spektroskopie von 208Pb

berichtet, siehe pdf-File und erkl"arender Text-File
During the 24th Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference , Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics (NPA5), at Eilat (Israel), April 3-8, 2011, in the poster session on Tuesday 4-April-2011, I presented a poster

Approaching complete spectroscopy in 208Pb , see abstract .


Auf der Tagung der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft in Mainz 2012 (19.-23. M"arz 2012) wurde im Vortrag HK20.9 "uber die

Anregungsenergien von Teilchen-Loch-Zust"anden in 208Pb und die SDI Wechselwirkung

berichtet, siehe pdf-File und erkl"arender Text-File
On the International Nuclear Physics Conference, Firenze, Italy, June 2-7, 2013, in the session NS session C3 on Tuesday, 4 June 2013 14:00 - 15:45, abstract NS093, I gave a talk on

Complete Spectroscopy of negative parity states in 208Pb with Ex < 6.3 MeV,

see pdf-file and text-file, published in EPJ Web of Conferences 66:02049 (2014)
On the 11th International Spring Seminar on Nuclear Physics, Ischia, May 12-16, 2014, (in honor of Aldo Covello) I gave a talk on

Observation of the bound 1-states in 208Pb by particle spectroscopy

see abstract and PDF-file pdf-File with accompagning text-file. In the conference proceedings the report is published.
Auf der Tagung der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft in Heidelberg 2015 (23.-27. M"arz 2015) wurde im Vortrag HK16.8 "uber die

Identifizierung des Proton-Paarungsvibrationszustands in 208Pb

berichtet, siehe pdf-File und erkl"arender Text-File
On the workshop on experiments with high-resolution spectrometers and separators; GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) 4.-6. November 2015, Friday 6.11.2015 10:00 I gave a talk on

High resolution particle spectroscopy of 208Pb with the MLL Q3D spectrograph

pdf-File with accompagning text-file.
Auf der Tagung der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft in M"unster (27.-31. M"arz 2017) wurde vorgetragen "uber den

Nachweis von rotierenden und vibrierenden Alpha-Clustern in schweren Kernen

HK32.8 (Abstract) mit PDF-File und begleitenden Text.
On the 12th International Spring Seminar on Nuclear Physics, Ischia, May 15-19, 2017, I reported on

Rotating and vibrating alpha-clusters in heavy nuclei

from 16O to 254Cf, see abstract and PDF-file pdf-File with accompagning text-file.
Auf der Tagung der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft in Bochum (26.Februar - 31. M"arz 2018) wurde vorgetragen "uber

Blei-208

HK58.4 (Abstract) mit PDF-File und begleitenden Text.
On the IV International Conference on Nuclear Structure and Dynamics (NSD2019) May 13-17, 2019 I gave a talk on

Discovery of collective states in the heavy 208Pb nucleus by complete spectroscopy

see Scientific Programme, Session XVIII 17:50 h , the Abstract , and Presentation slides 16.May 2019 -- Session XVIII 17:20 h , and Heusler_NSD2019.pdf , and Talk , and explanations .
On the International Nuclear Physics Conference at Glasgow, UK, 29 July to 2 August, 2019

I gave a talk on Weak coupling of 1p1h states to platonic shapes in 208Pb with explanations .



Data for EPJA

are stored here .

Data for 208Pb(p,p') and 208Pb(d,d') and 206,207,208Pb(d,p)

are stored at directory Blei208_Q3D, see Read.Me. They are also stored on the tape roboter at the MLL (Garching) under the account /o/exp/polar/HsL/Blei208_Q3D. For retrieval ask the computer staff at MLL.

The evaluation of the structure of states in 208Pb for excitation energies up to 8 MeV continues.


Published spectra are collected with References for 208Pb(p,p') - part A , for 208Pb(p,p') - part B , for 208Pb(p,p') - part C and 207Pb(d,p) with Table of figures.


The diploma thesis of H. J. Gl"ockner, Diplomarbeit, Uni Heidelberg 1973 has been edited by rescanning original computer plots and the manuscript (abstract).

The data are presented in ASCII format in HJG_data.

Spectra taken at 60 - 170 deg scattering angles and proton energies Ep = 14.99, 16.30, 16.45, 17.40, 17.47, 17.75 MeV, HJG_1969_spectra.list, are rescanned: HJG_1969_rescannned.tgz; they are evaluated by GASPAN.

See also english abstract and preliminary evaluation of more data .

Another set of spectra, both taken with the Q3D magnetic spectrograph at MLL (Garching) and from a preliminary evaluation of the data taken in 1969 is shown in a survey for 6.0 < Ex < 7.6 MeV for 208Pb(p,p') at (A) Ep=16.50/16.63, (B) Ep=16.96, (C) Ep=17.30, (D, E) Ep=16.45, 17.30, 17.47, and for (F) 208Pb(d,d'), (G) 207Pb(d,p).


A spectrum of 207Pb(d,p) taken in 1969 with the Buechner magnet spectrograph gathering 6 mCb at Ed=11.5 MeV, Theta=130 deg.


Original Q3D data from 208Pb(p,p') experiments performed in jul-2003, nov-2003, may-2008, mar-2009; from 207Pb(d,p) experiments performed at Ep = 22 MeV in jul-2004; from 207Pb(d,p) experiments performe at Ep = 24 MeV in jul-2012; from 206Pb(d,p), 207Pb(d,p), 208Pb(d,p) experiments; 207Pb(d,d'), 208Pb(d,d') performed at Ep = 24 MeV in oct-2012; 207Pb(d,p), 208Pb(d,d') performe at Ep = 22 MeV in feb-2013 are stored as tar-files (Q3Ddat-*.tgz) here

The (d,p) data are also stored as tar-files (SZ-*.tgz) separately.

Some listings and sample files x.sta, x.lis, x.ene for the work with GASPAN are found in the tar-file nohup.out-Q3D_gaspan.tarListe.

Here are the edited RUNbook for Q3D data from all 208Pb(p,p') experiments performed in july-2003, nov-2003, may-2008, mar-2009 and the edited RUNbook for Q3D data from the 206Pb(d,p), 207Pb(d,p), 208Pb(d,p), 207Pb(d,d'), 208Pb(d,d') experiments performed in jul-2004, jul-2012, oct-2012, feb-2013.

Survey of all spectra calibrated by GASPAN are stored here (*gsp_spec*). Spectra of 208Pb(p,p') fitted by GASPAN are stored here (see listing nohup.ppRUN_tvzf).

Parameter files needed by GASPAN are stored here (examples).


Original Q3D data from 208Pb(a,a') experiments performed in 1992 by Atzrott, Valnion, Graw, Hertenberger et al are stored as tar-file Pb208aa.tgz, (say tar -tvfz *.tgz or tar -xvfz *.tgz ). Spectra were taken at 5 - 90 deg scattering angles and alpha energy Ea = 40 MeV. The list of runs is Atzrott_1992.run_list.

They were provided in june-2015 by Ulrich Atzrott without further comments. For details see PhD thesis of U. Atzrott, Uni T"ubingen (1995).


Original Q3D data from 208Pb(a,a') experiments performed in 1992 by Atzrott, Valnion, Graw, Hertenberger et al are stored as tar-file Pb208aa.tgz, (say tar -tvfz *.tgz or tar -xvfz *.tgz ). Spectra were taken at 5 - 90 deg scattering angles and alpha energy Ea = 40 MeV. The list of runs is Atzrott_1992.run_list.

They were provided in june-2015 by Ulrich Atzrott without further comments. For details see PhD thesis of U. Atzrott, Uni T"ubingen (1995).



Calculated wave functions and excitation energies for 208Pb


Wave functions were calculated by T. T. S. Kuo and G. E. Brown in 1968 using an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction.

The complete data set of the excitation energies is stored here. The amplitudes of the wave functions are only available in few line printer outputs; one exemplar owned by me (originally given to Peter von Brentano) was done in march 1968 (the DIN A 3 paper has 25 mm thickness).

Wave functions calculated by K. H. Maier in 2007 using the M3Y interaction.

The complete data set wave functions calculated by K. H. Maier is stored here.

Excitation energies calculated in the schematic shell model without residual interaction and including the surface delta interaction.

Here the complete data set of the SDI excitation energies is stored.

Derivation of formulas for 208Pb(p,p') by H. L. Harney

done in 1967-1969.

An elementary derivation of the cross section formula for (p,p')

obtained by H. L. Harney in 1967 is shown here.

A consistent set of formula for (p,p')

obtained by H. L. Harney in 1968 is shown here.
In the proceedings of Isospin in Nuclear Physics", Ed. D. H. Wilkinson, North-Holland Publ. Co, Amsterdam, 1969, D. Robson writes at the end of his discussion on Isobaric Analog Resonances (p. 507):

On the experimental side it is safe to predict that there is a gold mine of information still to be dug out. It is becoming clear that more accurate data as well as sophisticated measurements will be what we need. ... Nevertheless, there appears to be a tremendous amount of work still to be done before we will have a reasonable complete set of data and a satisfying understanding of it.


last revision: A.Heusler 20-Aug-2019
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