Cosmic ray / Gamma ray / Neutrino and similar experiments
This collection of links is provided in the hope that it will be useful
both for the colleagues working in any of the fields covered by this
collection as well as for non-experts who would like to find out what
is happening in these fields. Although I try to be as comprehensive and
as much up-to-date as possible, in particular in cosmic rays and gamma
rays, such a collection can never be complete and some links may be
out-dated or not functional.
If you know of things which should be included in this collection,
be modified in it, or be removed from it, please let me know.
Disclaimer: This page contains (actually consists to a large extend of)
links to external web pages.
An extended disclaimer (in German) applies to information provided
on this web page.
Cosmic-ray and gamma-ray experiments
Some missions/experiments proposed or under development:
For a comprehensive list of high-energy astrophysics missions see
For a list of gamma-ray missions see also
- ACE [Advanced Composition
Explorer] Mission mainly for solar particles; launched in August 1997.
[Astro-rivelatore Gamma a Immagini LEggero]
X-ray/gamma ray mission launched April 23, 2007.
[Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer] Detector installed on the
International Space Station on May 19, 2011.
See also NASA page
[Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics] (X-ray mission but
with some cosmic-ray relevant results, see also
Observations ended July 14, 2000.
- BeppoSAX [Satellite per
(operational May 1996 - April 2002)
- Chandra X-ray satellite
[Compton Gamma Ray Observatory] (mission terminated)
with the four experiments:
[Burst And Transient Source Experiment]
[Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment]
[imaging Compton telescope]
[Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope]
(measures the Earth's magnetotail)
- Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope,
originally: GLAST [Gamma ray Large Area Space Telescope]
(launch June 11, 2008,
see also NASA page)
- GRANAT gamma-ray
satellite with several experiments (SIGMA, WATCH and others)
was turned off November 27, 1998
SIGMA [Système d'Imagerie Gamma à Masque
- HETE [High-Energy
Transient Experiment] (launch failed on 4 Nov. 1996) has a follow-up:
HETE-2 (launched October 9, 2000).
(Interplanetary Monitoring Platform)
INTEGRAL [INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory]
(launched October 17, 2002)
[New Instrument for Nuclear Analysis], a mission for low energy cosmic rays.
- PAMELA (magnet
spectrometer, launched June 15, 2006).
(examines the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere)
X-ray satellite (ended February 12, 1999)
- RXTE [Rossi
X-ray Timing Explorer]
- SAMPEX [Solar
Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer]
satellite project apparently abandonded for some time
(see also here
X-ray satellite (Astro-E2 mission, see also
this NASA page)
- SWIFT (gamma ray burst mission,
launched November 20, 2004)
(explores interplanetary space at high solar latitudes)
(two spacecrafts heading towards interstellar space)
- WIND (explores solar
wind and plasma processes near the earth as well as gamma-ray bursts)
[X-ray Multi-mirror Mission] (see also
pages at GSFC)
See also the NASA balloon programs.
- AESOP / LEE
[Anti-Electron Sub Orbital Payload / Low Energy Electrons]
[Antarctic Impulse Transient Array] (project for radio frequency neutrino shower detection)
See also here.
ATIC [Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter]
BaBy [Background Bypass] (measuring atmospheric UV background for
the EUSO project)
BESS [Balloon-borne Experiment with a superconducting Solenoid Spectrometer]
(see also here).
BETS [Balloon borne Electron Telescope with Scintillating fibers],
for PPB-BETS (Polar Patrol Balloon) flight see also
[Cosmic AntiParticle Ring Imaging Cherenkov Experiment]
(see also CAPRICE-II)
[Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass Balloon Experiment] (see also
- GRATIS [Gamma-Ray
Arcminute Telescope Imaging System]
- GRIP [Gamma Ray
[Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer]
[High Energy Antimatter Telescope]
[High Resolution Gamma-Ray and Hard X-Ray Spectrometer]
- IMAX [Isotope Matter
Antimatter Experiment] (see also
- ISOMAX [Isotope
[Japanese-American Collaborative Emulsion Experiment]
(mainly for cosmic-ray composition up to several hundred TeV)
- MASS.. [Matter
Antimatter Superconducting Spectrometer] (flown in different configurations;
for MASS2 see also here)
- PoGOLite [Polarized Gamma-ray Observer]
[RUssian-Nippon JOint Balloon Experiment]
[Superconducting Magnet Instrument for Light Isotopes]
- TIGRE [Tracking and Imaging Gamma Ray
Experiment] (under development)
- TIGER [Trans Iron Galactic Element Recorder]
[Transition Radiation Array for Cosmic Energetic Radiation]
Atmospheric Cherenkov experiments
Telescopes and telescope systems:
- CANGAROO at Woomera, Australia
[Collaboration between Australia and Nippon for a GAmma Ray Observatory
in the Outback]. See also
Australian page from Adelaide.
system of four 10 m telescopes in Australia
(fully operational since March 2004).
[Cherenkov Array at Thémis]
[C(h)erenkov Light Ultraviolet Experiment] at the HEGRA site on La Palma
(operational from 1997 to 2000)
- HAGAR Telescope(s),
at Hanle valley, Ladakh (India).
- HEGRA Cherenkov Telescopes
on La Palma, Canary Islands
(operational until Sep. 2002)
[High Energy Stereoscopic System], four 13 m telescopes in Namibia
Paris, fully operational since December 2003)
[Major Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescope Experiment]
(project in India)
(a 17 m telescope on La Palma, Canary Islands,
operational since 2003)
- Narrabri, Australia: Mark 6 telescopes of the
University of Durham
(operational until March 2000)
- PACT [Pachmarhi Array
of C(h)erenkov telescopes] at the High Energy Gamma Ray Observatory at Pachmarhi,
[TeV Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescope with Imaging Camera] at
Mt. Abu, Rajasthan, India
[Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System]
(in Arizona, USA, operational since 2007)
- Whipple Gamma-Ray
Mt. Hopkins, Arizona.
Solar power facilities as light collectors:
[Converted Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope Using Solar-2]
(Initially called Solar Two Observatory)
Link broken. See
wikipedia entry instead.
[CErenkov Low Energy Sampling and Timing Experiment] at Thémis,
Link broken. See
[Gamma-Ray Astronomy at ALmeria] near Almeria, Spain
[Solar Tower Air Cherenkov Experiment] at Sandia Labs, New Mexico
Cherenkov counter arrays:
- AIROBICC (non-imaging counters in the
[Broad LAteral Non-imaging C(h)erenkov Array]
(array of non-imaging counters near Lake Baikal)
Other Cherenkov light detection concepts:
(a balloon project looking for light reflected on snow)
(link not operational)
GAW Gamma Air Watch (a project using Fresnel lenses for imaging).
[Cherenkov Telescope Array] (a project taking Cherenkov telescope
arrays to a larger scale).
Atmospheric fluorescence experiments
Air shower experiments with particle detectors
[Akeno Giant Air Shower Array]
ARGO-YBJ: new experiment under construction in Tibet
pages in Torino)
[Air-Shower Core Experiment]
(Sydney, operational 1989-1991)
Buckland Park Extensive Air Shower Array (Australia)
[Chicago Air Shower Array]
(operational 1990-1998), link not operational, see
[Cosmic Ray Tracking]
(prototypes, operational 1992-1996)
EAS-TOP experiment (Italy, above the
underground laboratory, until April 2000)
- Haverah Park
(former experiment of Leeds University,
operational until 1993)
- GAMMA (air shower array and
muon counters at Mount Aragats, Armenia)
[Gamma Ray Astrophysics at Notre Dame] (an array of tracking detectors)
[Gamma Ray Experiment] array
(Haverah Park, operational 1986-1995)
[The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory]
[High Energy Gamma Ray Astronomy] (operational 1988-2002)
(see also here)
[KArlsruhe Shower Core and Array DEtector].
Later extended as
(Water Cherenkov experiment near Los Alamos).
related pages at University of Maryland
at New York University.
Observatory in Japan
- Pierre Auger Project
(originally also known as the Giant Airshower Detector
The administrative page is now
See also the pages at/in/by
CNRS (central French Auger site),
Michigan Tech U.,
and more than 30 others.
[South Pole Air Shower Array]
[Sydney University Giant Air shower Recorder]
(was operational from 1968 to 1979)
Tian-Shan Mountain Cosmic Ray Station
(pages by Lebedev Institute), link not operational
Tibet AS-gamma experiment: scintillation counter array
Other ground-based cosmic-ray experiments
Large-area detector networks
Alberta Large area Time coincidence Array
California HIghschool Cosmic ray ObServatory
[Cosmic Ray Observatory Project] (high school project in Nebraska)
[High School Project on Astro-Physics Research with Cosmics]
(in the Netherlands)
[North American Large area Time coincidence Arrays]
[New York Schools Cosmic Particle Telescope]
[WAshington Large Area Time coincidence Array]
(university + schools project)
[Extreme Energy Events]
(a highschool project in Italy)
- LOFAR [LOw Frequency ARray]
and the prototype station LOPES.
(see also here, in Dutch)
[Cosmics Detector Array Logarithmic ElectroMagnetic Antennas]
Project AERA [Auger Engineering Radio Array]
[Semnan University Radio Array]
High-energy neutrino and underground muon experiments
Neutrino experiments at particle accelerators
(including long-baseline neutrino beams)
[Booster Neutrino Experiment]: planned experiment at Fermilab
[CERN Hybrid Oscillation Research apparatUS]: experiment at
[COsmologically Significant Mass Oscillation Search]: Experiment E803 at
[KArlsruhe Rutherford Intermediate Energy Neutrino Experiment]
- KEK-PS E362 (K2K: KEK to Kamioka)
New long-baseline neutrino
oscillation experiment from KEK PS to
LSND [Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector] at
[Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search] Long-baseline experiment with
neutrino beam from FNAL to
For live event display go
[Neutrino Oscillation Experiment]: planned CERN to Gran Sasso
[Neutrino Oscillation MAgnetic Detector] experiment at CERN.
- NuTeV (Fermilab experiment
E815, measures mainly sin2thetaw).
[Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tRacking Apparatus]: proposed
CERN to Gran Sasso long-baseline experiment.
- TAU (Fermilab experiment E 872)
[Topological Oscillation Search with kinematiCal Analysis]:
intended CERN short-baseline experiment.
Reactor neutrino experiments
Underground neutrino and muon experiments
BOREXINO experiment at Gran Sasso (see, among others, also pages of the
- CERN underground muon experiments
Cosmics with L3 and
[GALLium EXperiment] a former solar neutrino experiment at Gran Sasso
[Gallium Neutrino Observatory] is the successor project of GALLEX.
See also here.
- Various GRAN SASSO experiments
[GALLEX, LVD, MACRO, and others]
- GERDA [GERmanium Detector Array]
[HELium á la tempèrature de L'AZote liquide] (proposed
but discontinued solar neutrino detector project;
- Homestake chlorine experiment (no link known).
- ICARUS [Imaging Cosmic
And Rare Underground Signal]: Liquid argon TPC detector to be build at
[Irvine Michigan Brookhaven] experiment.
(Link unavailable, see experiment entry
here or visit
[Low Energy Neutrino Spectroscopy] project for sub-MeV solar neutrino spectrum.
- LVD experiment
[Large Volume Detector] at Gran Sasso.
[Monopole, Astrophysics, Cosmic Rays] (see also
pages prepared by
[Observatory for Multiflavor NeutrInos from Supernovae]
[Soviet-American Gallium Experiment]
[Sudbury Neutrino Observatory] (see also
U. of Washington,
U. of Guelph,
(Tower-Soudan Iron Mine, Minnesota, USA,
operated until 2001).
Super Kamiokando (S-K):
see also the S-K pages from
Underwater neutrino experiments
[Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and Abyss environmental RESearch]
- Baikal (underwater
neutrino experiment in Lake Baikal, Russia).
DUMAND [Deep Undersea Muon and Neutrino Detector], from Hawaii U.
NEMO [NEutrino subMarine Observatory]
- NESTOR, planned for
deployment off the coast of Greece.
(Unreliable link, see also experiment entry
Experiments in Antarctic ice
(at the South Pole)
[Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector]. (See also the AMANDA page from
(a kilometer-scale neutrino observatory)
[Radio Array Neutrino Detector]
[Radio Ice Cerenkov Experiment]
Other cosmic neutrino experiments
Goldstone (searching for radio signals from UHE neutrino
interactions in the moon)
Dark matter searches
- For introductions to and some history of dark matter see, for example,
- A more complete collection of dark matter experiments than here
can be found, for example, on
these pages of the
the CDMS at UCSB group.
- Direct searches:
[CERN Axion Solar Telescope].
[Cryogenic Dark Matter Search].
[Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers].
[particle DArk MAtter searches
with low activity scintillators] at Gran Sasso
[Expérience pour DÉtecter Les WIMPs En SIte Souterrain]
[Heidelberg Dark Matter Search]
[UK Dark Matter Collaboration, Boulby Mine]
links to other dark matter searches)
- Searches for microlensing:
For links to microlensing searches of MACHOs see for example
Gravitational wave experiments
Simulation of cosmic ray air-showers
Interpretation of cosmic-ray measurements on the ground or underground
usually requires comparison with simulations of cosmic ray air-showers.
Unfortunately, few of these simulation programs are found on the net.
program above is not related to the
[COsmic Ray SImulations for KAscade] Air-shower simulation program
- Electron Gamma Shower (EGS)
web page at LBL (U.S.A.)
simulation codes by K. Kasahara (Japan)
[AIRshower Extended Simulations] at La Plata (Argentina)
simulation program (at DePauw university, U.S.A.)
Link not operational.
air-shower simulation program by G. Battistoni, M. Carboni, and others.
Link not operational.
Hadronic interaction models in air-shower simulation programs are
usually based on programs developed for
interactions at accelerator experiments, like
For a more extensive list of interaction simulation programs used
in high-energy physics see
Simulation of the detector response to particles is frequently done
(which, occasionally, is also used for air-shower simulations).
Miscellaneous sites of cosmic-ray
and astroparticle research (sorted by region)
- Switzerland (including CERN)
- United Kingdom
- United States
This list is certainly incomplete. Apologies to those not included. Please
drop me a note.
- South Korea
This section should contain links to educational material and other useful
links for non-experts. This part is new and definitely incomplete. Please send
a note if you know of outstanding resources in the areas of this list
which are missing here.
Useful collections of conferences and other meetings can be found,
among others, at the following locations:
The 29th ICRC
was held in Pune, India, in 2005,
the 30th ICRC
in Mérida, Mexico, in 2007, the
31st ICRC in Lodz, Poland,
in 2009, the 32nd ICRC in Bejing, China, in 2011,
and the 33rd ICRC in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2013.
For a list of all ICRCs see
See also the
NASA list of high-energy astrophysics sites (mainly satellite experiments).
Many sets of astrophysics or space physics data sets are available from
Space Science Data Center (NSSDC).
The (U.S.) National Geophysical
Data Center has a
Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division.
Links to heliospheric resources are also provided
from Budapest, and from
the Oulu (Finland).
Quite comprehensive lists of astronomy resources on the Internet are
maintained by the AstroWeb
Consortium at NRAO,
CDS, and other
places. See, for example, the pointers to
or to high-energy
astronomy (all apparently not updated for some time).
A couple of links to introductory astronomy material can be found
The Commission on Cosmic Rays
of the IUPAP publishes
Cosmic Ray News Bulletin.
Links to experiments and other sites are provided by the
Particle and Nuclear Astrophysics and Gravitation International Committee
(PaNAGIC) of the IUPAP.
A very useful collection of links and other information is also maintained
although in German only.
Additional links to neutron monitor instruments and data
are available from Bern.
More pointers to information concerning neutrino experiments and relevant
background information are available from
For up-to-date information see also the
Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Newsletters. A review of the
and many other aspects of neutrino research is provided at LAPP
(France). Note also the collection of material by
Links to many
high-energy physics experiments mainly at accelerators are provided by
the High Energy Physics information System (INSPIRE).
A list of
high-energy physics web sites and institutes is available from
If you are looking for the address of a particular person in one of
the fields covered by this list, then try the
INSPIRE HEPNAMES database, the
HEP Virtual Phonebook,
the Star*Heads, or
the RGO Email database.
This collection of links is maintained by Konrad Bernlöhr at the
Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics
Last changes on February 20, 2020.
Comments and additions to this page are welcome:
Mail to Konrad Bernlöhr